1.OFFER,SUGGESTION, INTENTION (asking what to do) (shall + we, I)

e.g. Shall I translate it? Shall I I get you a cup of tea? Shall I read?

2. Promise, threat, warning (Shall + 2nd ,3rd pers. Sing and plur)

e.g. You shall have it tomorrow. He shall do as I say. Strong stress required

3. Shall в инструкциях и предписаниях, обозначает долженствование.
( = to be obliged)
Students shall not eat during lectures — Студенты не должны есть во время лекций.

Will (would)

a. habitual actions in the present & past (will, would + simp. INF)
e.g. She will (would) sit for hours looking at the ceiling pensively.

b. refusal to perform an action
e.g. She knows I wouldn’t be checked.

c. lifeless things fail to perform (- )
e.g. The pen won’t (wouldn’t) write . (никак не пишет)

2. will, intention , determination, insistence, resistance ( + - )

e.g. I will suffer no priest to interfere in my business.
She will not budge.


WILL + simp. INF – present , future
e.g. This will be the school I believe (Это,по видимому и есть школа)
+ perf. INF – past
e.g. You will have heard the news. (Я полагаю, что вы уже слышали)

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