Dynamic vs. Stative

Present Simple is used with the following verbs instead Present Progressive

-physical perceptions: hear, notice, see, feel
-emotions: like, love, hate, adore, detest.
-wish: desire, want, wish
-mental processes: believe, think, know, understand, remember, recognize, imagine, doubt, consider, expect, mind
-relation: be, have, own, deserve, depend
-other: allow, astonish, envy, fail to do, find, forgive, intend, interest, keep doing, manage to do, mean, please, prefer, realize, refuse, remind, seem, smell, sound, succeed, surprise, taste, tend value.

e.g. I know this man. (Нельзя сказать: I’m knowing …)

Present Progressive may be used in the following cases with specific meaning

DYNAMIC VERBS: (can be used in the progressive to express ...)

1.Activity verbs:(ask, beg, call, drink, play, read, listen to) - PROCESS
Process verbs: (change, widen, deteriorate, grow, fall, die)
2.Bodily Sensation:(ache, feel, hurt, itch) ------------------------- INTENSITY
3.Momentary actions:(hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap) ------- - REPETITION
e.g. She is asking you to be quiet.
      I’m feeling very nervous.
      The boxer is hitting another boxer.

(usually not used in the progressive but when used their meanings are affected)

1.Physical Perception: “see” - (увидеться, проводить) e.g. Are you seeing me?
2.Emotions & wish: - intensification e.g. I’m loving you.
3.Mental Processes:
consider (= изучать) -  e.g. We are considering your application.
expect (= ожидать) - e.g. I’m expecting a visitor.
mind (= присматривать) - e.g. Is anyone minding the baby while you are out?
think (= процесс мышления) - e.g. Be quiet! I’m thinking.

4.Relational verbs:
be (= behave) - e.g. You are being rude.
have a smoke, have dinner, have something done, have a walk breakfast (a bath coffee / teaa party troubles / difficulties)
e.g. They are having dinner at the moment. I’m having my room painted.

5. Additionally:
I’m noticing the changes. notice …
I’m understanding you. I’m beginning to understand …
I’m forgetting my French. forget …


    VOLUNTARY                   INVOLUNTARY
I’m listening to you.                I hear you.
I’m looking at you.                  I see you.
I’m feeling this pillow.            I feel a pin in it.
I’m smelling the flower.         I smell gas. It smells awful
I’m tasting this soup.             I taste pepper in it. I tastes hot.

No comments:

Post a Comment