Lie detectors

 (Polygraph) Download in
Although "lie detectors" are being used by governments, police departments, and businesses that all want guaranteed ways of detecting the truth, the results are not always accurate1. Lie detectors are properly called emotion detectors, for their aim is to measure bodily changes that contradict what a person says. The polygraph machine records changes in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and the electrical activity of the skin (galvanic skin response, or GSR). In the first part of the polygraph test, you are electronically connected to the machine and asked a few neutral questions ("What is your name?" "Where do you live?"). Your physical reactions serve as the standard for evaluating what comes next. Then you are asked a few critical questions among the neutral ones ("When did you rob the bank?"). The assumption (предположение) is that if you are guilty, your body will reveal the truth, even if you try to deny it. Your heart rate, respiration (дыхание), and GSR will change abruptly (=suddenly) as you respond (=answer) to the incriminating questions.
That is the theory; but psychologists have found that lie detectors are simply not reliable. Since most physical changes are the same across all emotions, machines cannot tell whether you are feeling guilty, angry, nervous, thrilled, or revved up (=excited)  from an exciting day. Innocent people may be tense and nervous about the whole procedure. They may react physiologically to a certain word ("bank") not because they robbed it, but because they recently bounced a check4. In either case  the machine will record a "lie." The reverse mistake is also common. Some practiced liars can lie without flinching  (вздрагивать), and others learn to beat the machine by tensing muscles or thinking about an exciting experience during neutral questions.

According lo the passage, polygraph tests
(A)  record a person's physical reactions
(B)  measure a person's thoughts
(C)  always reveal the truth about a person
(D)  make guilty people angry

Answer (A) is correct because it is a rewording of "bodily changes." Answer (B) is incorrect because the polygraph measures physical changes; thoughts are not physical changes. Answer (C) is also incorrect since the passage states that lie detectors are "simply not reliable." Answer (D) is incorrect since the polygraph does not make guilty people nervous; it makes innocent people nervous.

According to the passage, what kind of questions are asked on the first part of the polygraph test?
(A) Critical .
(B) Unimportant
(C)  Incriminating
(D)  Emotional

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