Lend - Can you lend me your car this evening?
Borrow - ▪ Can I borrow your pen for a second?
! Be careful!
You lend money, your car etc to someone (=you let them have it),
but you borrow it from someone (=they let you have it).
Don't say 'she borrowed me her car'. Say she lent me her car.
A salary is the amount of money that someone earns for a year's work, usually paid once a month directly into their bank account:
'I'll pay you back at the end of the month when I get my salary.'
'She's on a salary of £23,000 a year.'
'He opened the envelope and counted his wages.'
When you are thinking about rates or levels of payment (rather than actual coins and bank notes), use wage :
'She earns a pretty good wage.'
'They're demanding a 20 per cent wage increase.'
'They've raised the minimum wage from $4.25 an hour to $5.50.'
Pay is a general word for the (amount of) money people get for the work they do:
'He's lost a month's pay.'
'They've been given a pay rise of £20 a week.'
And finally, the word "аванс" и "предоплата" can normally be expressed in English by:
an advance - money paid to someone before the usual time
a prepayment - предоплата; аванс