The Passive Voice
direct object (кого, что) e.g. I saw him in the room
Transitive Verbs direct and indirect object (кому, чему) e.g. I gave her a book.
prepositional object e.g. Do it for me.
require no object e.g. He walks fast.
prepositional object e.g. Hope for the best.
Verbs may be TRANSITIVE in one meaning and INTRANSITIVE in the other
TYPE 1. The DIRECT PASSIVE. (Active Object à Subject Passive)
e.g. He wrote this book 2 years ago. à This book was written 2 years ago.
NB. In Russian these verbs can't be used in the passive voice but in English they can: approach, attend, answer, help, assist, follow,
influence, join, watch
1. Complex Subject:
2. Formal "IT" (the passive is followed by "that"): It was (is) … that
This type is never used:
3. Some transitives: resemble, suit, fit, have, possess, lack.
TYPE 2 The DIRECT & INDIRECT PASSIVE ( Active Direct (Active Indirect) à Passive Subject)
e.g. I gave her a book. à She was given a book. A book was give to her.
Indirect Passive isn't possible when it implies "for" : A new dictionary was bought to me.
Give a chance, an opportunity a task orders
a choice, a party first aid shelter e.g. He wasn't given a chance to explain.
a job, a post news, prominence
an explanation, a sentence notice
Bring, play, read, write
TYPE 3 The PREPOSITIONAL PASSIVE (Active Prepositional Object à Subject Passive)
1. Verbs of SPEAKING: comment on, speak about(of, to), talk about (of, to), write about. e.g. I've been much talked about
2. Verb "look" (+ at, upon, after, for, into) + other phrasal verbs: e.g. He was looked upon as their leader.
approve of, call for, think of, send for
Not found with the verbs which take 2 objects (àTYPE 1): announce, dedicate, devote, explain (smth to smb), point out, propose, say, suggest. e.g. The difficulty was explained to her (She was explained the difficulty to)
We are not interested WHO
BY (кем?) – the doer of the action.
e.g. This house was built by my father.
The letter was written with a brown pencil.