Complex Object and Complex Subject (2 in 1)

Complex Object
1. After the verbs of PHYSICAL PERCEPTION: see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe

e.g. I saw him run (running). I watched her cry (crying). I noticed him smile (smiling). I felt my hand trembling.

NB. After "to see" = to understand, to realize a subordinate clause should be used: e.g. I saw he was trying to deceive me

"to hear" = to be aware of I hear he has left for london.


2. After the verbs of MENTAL PERCEPTION: think, consider, find, believe, expect, admit, know, suppose, imagine

feel, trust, acknowledge, assume, deny, prove

e.g. I think him to be a good man. I found him broken. She felt her story to impress him.

I consider it (to be) foolish. I trust you to do this work on time.

+ after the verbs of Declaring: pronounce, declare : e.g. I pronounce you (to be) man and wife.
With or without TO

(in many cases "to be" is omitted) 
3. After the verbs expressing ORDER, PERMISION, REQUEST, COMPULSION:

let, make, have * order ask force cause allow suffer

(без "to" ) command compel request persuade mean get

e.g. I'll have him do it. Don't let her go. You made her cry. She asked him to come on time. I won't have you object to me. 
With TO 
4. After the verbs expressing LIKING, DISLIKING, WISH, PREFERENCE: want, wish, would like, hate, can't stand, desire, mean,

intend, choose (хотеть), like, dislike, love

e.g. I would like you to go there. I hate you to think we're late on purpose.

With TO

  1. CO is translated into Russian by a) a subord. object caluse (я видел, как (что)) or b) a construction with an infinitive.
    1. Verbs which require a preposition preserve it with CO (wait for, rely on, listen to) e.g. He listened to the wind blowing outside.
    2. Participle I shows the action in progress e.g. I saw him running.
    3. Participle II is used in CO after "have" in "to have smth done" e.g. I've had my hair cut.

(all the forms of the infinitive)

1.After: seem, appear, happen, chance, prove, turn out

e.g. He seems to know everything.

She chanced to be in the park.

He appeared to be a good man.

The book has proved to be useful.

He happened to have seen this movie.

2.with the phrases: to be certain (наверняка), to be likely,

to be sure (несомненно),
to be unlikely.

e.g. He is unlikely to appear in the street tonight.
He is sure to have seen this movie.

1.After the verbs of MENTAL or PHYSICAL PERCEPTION:

see, hear, think, consider, know, expect, believe, suppose

e.g. The were heard to laugh (laughing) heartily

She was seen to leave (leaving) the house


let, make, order, ask, force, allow, compel, request, persuade.

e.g. She was requested to wait for a few minutes.

3. After the verbs of SAYING, REPORTING

say, report, allege, pronounce

e.g. She is said to resemble me.
She is reported (to be) missing.

4.After the verbs of WISH, EXPECTATION

suppose, expect

e.g. He was supposed to be dead,

She was expected to come on Friday

NB. A perfect infinitive shows that the action wasn't carried out: e.g. He was supposed to have come on Monday (but he didn't)

The Particle "to" is not used:
1.After MODALS (except: ought to, have to, be to, *need, dare) + had better, would rather … than, would sooner, can't help but,

have nothing to do but, won't have, can't but, do nothing but (save)

2. After the verbs of PHYSICAL PERCEPTION: see, hear, watch, observe, feel, notice

NB. If see, hear, feel are used in the meaning of mental perception "to" is used: e.g. I hear him to leave.(Я слышал он уехал) I felt my hand

to be freezing.

3. After let, make, have
e.g. I won't have you talk to me like that. RHETORICAL and COLLOQUIAL QUESTIONS: e.g. Why stay here? Why not go home? How leave her there?

NB. 1. Know (be aware of) à Present & Past Simple + to = I know it to be true.

(experience, witness) à без to = I've never known him smile.

2. help (admits of variations) e.g. Help me (to) do it.

3. In the passive voice the inf is alwways used with to e.g. They were seen to leave.

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